Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) is a directive on the restrictions to use harmful elements such as Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Chromium (Cr), and plastics with Bromine (Br) such as Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). By using the X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), we can quickly determine the levels of hazardous substances.
Thermal Emission Microscopy is a semiconductor failure analysis technique that pinpoints failures by detecting thermal emissions generated within the semiconductor device. The increasing trend toward hyperfine patterns and lower supply voltages in semiconductor devices makes the infrared rays emitted by heat generated from semiconductor failure points fainter and more difficult to detect.
Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes. This measurement provides information about physical phenomena, such as phase transitions, absorption, adsorption, and desorption; as well as chemical phenomena including chemisorptions, thermal decomposition, and solid-gas reactions (e.g., oxidation or reduction). A thermogravimetric analyzer continuously measures mass while the temperature of a sample is changed over time. Mass, temperature, and time are considered base measurements in thermogravimetric analysis while many additional measures may be derived from these three base measurements.
Differential scanning calorimetry is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment. Generally, the temperature program for a DSC analysis is designed such that the sample holder temperature increases linearly as a function of time. The reference sample should have a well-defined heat capacity over the range of temperatures to be scanned.
Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis (EBSD) is a characterization technique used to determine the crystalline structure and crystallographic orientation of a material. It produces a result called Kikuchi Patterns or Electron Backscatter Patterns (EBSP) to see the structure of it. This technique provides quantitative microstructural information about the crystallographic nature of metals, minerals, semiconductors, and ceramics. It reveals grain, size, grain boundary character, grain orientation, texture, and phase identity of the sample under the beam.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a characterization technique that checks emissions of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by being bombarded with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. The relative ease and low cost of sample preparation, and the stability and ease of use of x-ray spectrometers make this one of the most widely used methods for analysis of major and trace elements in rocks, minerals, and sediment.