Optical Beam Induced Resistance Change Analysis (OBIRCH) is a very powerful fault localization technique for Integrated Circuits. In semiconductor failure analysis, OBIRCH is commonly used to localize metal shorts, active area short, shorts in source or drain wells, gate oxide pin holes and poly shorts.
Atomic force microscopy is a characterization technique with a resolution that can measure in fractions of a nanometer. It is one of the most important techniques for imaging on the nanometer scale and has the advantage of imaging almost any type of surface, including polymers, ceramics, composites, glass, and biological samples.
Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy is a characterization technique that can be used to find the chemical composition of materials down to a spot size of a few microns, and to create element composition maps over a much broader raster area. Together, these capabilities provide fundamental compositional information for a wide variety of materials.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is a characterization technique used to analyze different kinds of samples such as membranes, filters, coins or even biological samples like plant leaf, ants, etc. The Scanning Electron Microscope uses electron beams to capture an image for observation of surface morphology, topography, cracks, failures, and any kind of microscopic observation from microns to the nanoscale level.